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Mariam “Al-Astrolabiya” Al-Ijliya

Alat apa yang Sobat Mojou gunakan untuk menentukan arah kiblat saat sedang safar? Kompas? GPS? Atau alat penentu arah kiblat digital?


Astrolab bulat yang disimpan di Museum Sejarah Ilmu Pengetahuan, Oxford/wikipedia.com

Pada zaman dahulu muslim menggunakan astrolab. Apa itu astrolab?

Astrolab adalah alat yang digunakan oleh muslim terdahulu untuk menentukan arah kiblat sekaligus penanda waktu solat. Tak hanya itu, alat ini juga dapat digunakan untuk menentukan hari-hari besar Islam. Untuk melihat hilal, misalnya.

Baca juga Mengenal Alfonso de Albuquerque, Si Pembuka Pintu Penjajahan Di Asia

Pada perkembangannya, astrolab mempunyai banyak bentuk. Umumnya berbentuk lingkaran terbuat dari tembaga atau perunggu berwarna keemasan yang dipatri dan didesain sedemikian rupa sebagaimana fungsinya.

Astrolab dapat digunakan untuk melihat pergeseran benda-benda langit seperti bumi, bulan, bintang, dan matahari. Alat ini berguna dalam bidang astronomi, bahkan navigasi kelautan.

Perkenalkan, Mariam Al-Ijliya, Sang Pembuat Astrolab

Mariam Al-Ijliya, seorang pembuat astrolab, lahir di Aleppo, Syria sekitar abad ke-10 atau sekitar tahun 944 M. Meskipun pada abad-8 astrolab ditemukan oleh pertama kali oleh Muhammad Al-Fazari, Mariam Al-Ijliya berkontribusi dalam pengembangan dan desainya.

Berawal dari ajakkan sang ayah, Bistolus, Mariam ikut dalam pembuatan alat-alat astronomi serupa. Mariam Al-Ijliya mengembangkan desain astrolab menjadi lebih kompleks dan inovatif pada zamannya. Saat ini, cara kerja dan konsep astrolab dapat dilihat pada GPS (Global Positioning System). Kemampuan yang dimilikinya ini membawa Ia bekerja untuk Sayf Al Dawla. Sayf Al Dawla merupakan Emirnya Aleppo, seorang penguasa kota pada tahun 945–967 M.

Meskipun kontribusinya besar, diketahui sangat sedikit tulisan-tulisan yang menjelaskan secara detil mengenai Mariam Al-Ijliya. Padahal, ia adalah satu-satunya perempuan yang disebutkan berkiprah dalam pembuatan ataupun pengerjaan teknik. Tidak hanya itu, Mariam Al-ijliya menjadi satu-satunya muslimah yang menjadi kontributor dalam bidang astrologi.

Nama Mariam Al-Ijliya akan menjadi salah satu tonggak penanda bahwa Islam dan ilmu pengetahuan berjalan berdampingan. Mariam Al-Ijliya juga, akan menjadi salah satu role model muslimah yang inovatif.

Baca juga Syekh Omar Mukhta, Guru Ngaji Penggeger Pasukan Besar Italia

Referensi:
whyislam.org
tirto.id
farah.id

 

(fnrp)

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